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In the context of recent advances in human reproductive technology, “Pronuclear Transfer” is used for

(a) Fertilization of egg in vitro by the donor sperm
(b) Genetic modification of sperm-producing cells
(c) Development of stem cells into functional embryos
(d) Prevention of mitochondrial diseases in offspring



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Pronuclear transfer is a technique used in human reproductive technology to prevent mitochondrial diseases in offspring. It involves transferring pronuclei, which are the nuclei of the sperm and egg cells before their fusion, from one zygote to another. In this procedure, a healthy donated egg is fertilized with the intending male parent's sperm, creating a zygote. The pronuclei of the zygote are then transferred to a donor egg whose own nucleus has been removed. The resulting zygote, free from mitochondrial diseases, is implanted into the mother's uterus. This technique offers the potential to prevent the transmission of mitochondrial diseases from the mother to her child.


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