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With reference to the cultural history of India consider the following pairs:

1. Parivrajaka – Renunciant and Wanderer
2. Shramana – Priest with a high status
3. Upasaka – Lay follower of Buddhism

Which of the pairs given above are correctly matched?

(a) 1 and2 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1,2 and 3



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1. Pair 1 is correctly matched. Parivrajaka refers to a renunciant or ascetic who wanders from place to place, usually in search of spiritual enlightenment. They are often associated with religious orders and traditions in India.

2. Pair 2 is not correctly matched. Shramana refers to an ascetic or religious seeker who practices self-discipline, meditation, and renunciation. They are not specifically associated with being a priest or holding a high social status.

3. Pair 3 is correctly matched. Upasaka refers to a lay follower of Buddhism who is not ordained as a monk or nun but practices Buddhist teachings and observes ethical principles in their daily life.


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