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With reference to the circumstances in Indian agriculture, the concept of 'Conservation Agriculture' assumes significance. Which of the following fall under the Conservation Agriculture?

1. Avoiding the monoculture practices
2. Adopting minimum tillage
3. Avoiding the cultivation of plantation crops
4. Using crop residues to cover soil surface
5. Adopting spatial and temporal crop sequencing/crop rotations

Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1, 3 and 4
(b) 2, 3, 4 and 5
(c) 2, 4 and 5
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 5



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Conservation Agriculture is an approach to sustainable farming that focuses on three main principles: minimum soil disturbance, permanent soil cover, and diversification of crop species. In the given options, the following practices fall under Conservation Agriculture:

1. Adopting minimum tillage: Minimum tillage involves reducing the intensity and frequency of soil tillage operations. It helps to maintain soil structure, reduce erosion, and improve water retention.

2. Using crop residues to cover soil surface: This practice involves leaving crop residues on the soil surface after harvesting. It acts as a protective cover, preventing soil erosion, improving soil moisture retention, and enhancing organic matter content.

3. Adopting spatial and temporal crop sequencing/crop rotations: Spatial and temporal crop sequencing or crop rotations involve the systematic rotation of different crops in space and time. This helps in nutrient cycling, pest and disease management, and improving soil health.


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