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With reference to ‘fly ash' produced by the power plants using coal as fuel, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. Fly ash can be used in the production of bricks for building construction.
2. Fly ash can be used as a replacement for some of the Portland cement contents of concrete.
3. Fly ash is made up of silicon dioxide and calcium oxide only, and does not contain any toxic elements.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 only
(c) 1 and 3
(d) 3 only



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Statement 1 is correct. Fly ash, which is a byproduct of coal combustion in power plants, can be used in the production of bricks for building construction. It serves as a supplementary material in the brick-making process, contributing to their strength and reducing the need for other raw materials.

Statement 2 is also correct. Fly ash can be used as a partial replacement for Portland cement in concrete production. It is commonly used as a cementitious material in the construction industry, helping to improve the durability and strength of concrete.

However, Statement 3 is incorrect. Fly ash is not solely composed of silicon dioxide and calcium oxide. It contains a range of chemical compounds and minerals, including silicon dioxide, calcium oxide, aluminum oxide, iron oxide, and other trace elements. The composition of fly ash can vary depending on the source coal and the combustion process. While it is generally considered safe for use in construction, it may contain small amounts of trace elements that need to be considered in specific applications.


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