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Which of the following leaf modifications occurs/occur in desert areas to inhibit water loss?

1. Hard and waxy leaves
2. Tiny leaves or no leaves
3. Thorns instead of leaves

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3



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In desert areas, plants have adaptations to minimize water loss due to the arid conditions. Some common leaf modifications in desert plants include:

Hard and waxy leaves: Desert plants often have leaves that are tough and covered with a thick cuticle layer. This helps reduce water loss through transpiration by creating a barrier that prevents excessive evaporation.

Tiny leaves or no leaves: Many desert plants have reduced leaf surface area or no leaves at all. This adaptation helps to minimize the surface area exposed to the hot and dry desert environment, reducing water loss.

Thorns instead of leaves: Some desert plants, such as cacti, have evolved to have modified leaves in the form of spines or thorns. These spines serve multiple purposes, including reducing water loss by reducing the surface area and providing protection against herbivores.


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