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The term ‘Intended Nationally Determined Contributions' is sometimes seen in the news in the context of
(a) pledges made by the European countries to rehabilitate refugees from the war-affected Middle East
(b) plan of action outlined by the countries of the world to combat climate change
(c) capital contributed by the member countries in the establishment of Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank
(d) plan of action outlined by the countries of the world regarding Sustainable Development Goals



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INDCs refer to the climate actions and targets that each country voluntarily submits to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). These contributions outline the efforts that countries are willing to undertake to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change. The INDCs play a crucial role in the global climate change negotiations and are instrumental in shaping international climate agreements, such as the Paris Agreement.


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