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The Chinese traveller Yuan Chwang (Hiuen Tsang) who visited India recorded the general conditions and culture of India at that time. In this context, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1. The roads and river-routes were completely immune from robbery.
2. As regards punishment for offences, ordeals by fire, water and poison were the instruments for determining the innocence or guilt of a person.
3. The tradesmen had to pay duties at ferries and barrier stations.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3



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The statement that roads and river-routes were completely immune from robbery is incorrect. Yuan Chwang's records mention instances of robbery and banditry along the roads and river-routes in India during his time. So, statement 1 is incorrect.

The statement regarding punishment for offences through ordeals by fire, water, and poison is mentioned in Yuan Chwang's records. These ordeals were indeed used as methods for determining the innocence or guilt of a person in ancient India. So, statement 2 is correct.

Yuan Chwang's records mention the imposition of duties on tradesmen at ferries and barrier stations in India. This indicates that tradesmen had to pay taxes or duties at specific points during their journeys. So, statement 3 is also correct.


How was this explanation?

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