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In rural road construction, the use of which the following is preferred for ensuring environmental sustainability or to reduce carbon footprint?

1. Copper slag
2. Cold mix asphalt technology
3. Geotextiles
4. Hot mix asphalt technology
5. Portland cement

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 4 and 5 only
(d) 1 and 5 only



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1. Copper slag is a byproduct of copper extraction and can be used as a partial replacement for sand in road construction. Its use reduces the demand for natural resources and helps in waste management.

2. Cold mix asphalt technology is an eco-friendly alternative to hot mix asphalt technology. It requires less energy and produces lower greenhouse gas emissions during production. It is also more sustainable as it can be produced using reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) or recycled materials.

3. Geotextiles are permeable fabrics that are used in road construction for various purposes such as erosion control, soil stabilization, and reinforcement. They help in reducing the need for excessive excavation and provide long-term durability to the road.

4. Hot mix asphalt technology involves the use of heated asphalt and aggregates to construct roads. While it is commonly used, it has a higher environmental impact compared to cold mix asphalt technology due to the energy required for heating the materials.

5. Portland cement is a common ingredient in concrete used for road construction. While it provides strength and durability to the road, its production process involves high energy consumption and carbon emissions.


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