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Consider the following techniques/phenomena:

1. Budding and grafting in fruit plants
2. Cytoplasmic male sterility
3. Gene silencing

Which of the above is/are used to create transgenic crops?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3
(d) None



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Transgenic crops, also known as genetically modified (GM) crops, are plants that have been genetically engineered to possess specific desirable traits through the introduction of genes from other organisms. This genetic modification is done in a laboratory using biotechnology techniques.

Cytoplasmic male sterility is a phenomenon used in breeding to create male-sterile plants for controlled hybridization. Gene silencing is a technique used to regulate gene expression and is applied in developing transgenic crops to suppress unwanted genes or enhance desired gene expression.

Budding and Grafting are horticulture techniques and do not involve genetic modification.


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