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Consider the following statements:
1. Agriculture soils release nitrogen oxides into environment.
2. Cattle release ammonia into environment.
3. Poultry industry releases reactive nitrogen compounds into environment.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3



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Statement 1 is correct. Nitrogen oxides can be produced through various agricultural practices, such as the use of nitrogen-based fertilizers, burning of crop residues, and microbial activity in the soil. These nitrogen oxides contribute to air pollution and can have adverse effects on human health and the environment.

Statement 2 is correct. Ammonia is a byproduct of the breakdown of urea in the digestive system of cattle. It is then released through urine and manure. Ammonia emissions from livestock can contribute to air pollution, particularly in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) or areas with high livestock density.

Statement 3 is correct. Poultry farming involves the use of nitrogen-rich feed and the production of manure that contains reactive nitrogen compounds such as ammonia and nitrous oxide. These compounds can contribute to air and water pollution when not properly managed.


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