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Consider the following pairs:

Terms sometimes seen in the news Their origin
1. Annex—I Countries : Cartagena Protocol
2. Certified Emissions Reductions : Nagoya Protocol
3. Clean Development Mechanism : Kyoto Protocol

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3



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Annex-I Countries: Annex-I Countries are not associated with the Cartagena Protocol. They are actually a classification of countries listed in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Annex I. Annex-I Countries are typically the industrialized nations that were members of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1992, along with countries with economies in transition.

Certified Emissions Reductions: Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs) are not directly associated with the Nagoya Protocol. CERs are actually units of emission reductions generated from projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), which is established under the Kyoto Protocol.

Clean Development Mechanism: The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is correctly associated with the Kyoto Protocol. The CDM is one of the flexible mechanisms established by the Kyoto Protocol to help developed countries meet their emission reduction targets by investing in emission reduction projects in developing countries.


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